TRIP OVERVIEW FLOWERS & VEGETATION IN NEPAL
Flowers & Vegetation In Nepal:
Lying at the ecological crossroads of major floristic regions, Nepal boasts of over 6390 species of flowering plants (including 400 tree species ) represented in the 136 ecosystems confined to 11 bio-climate zones and nine eco-regions.
The Tarai-Siwaliks (below 100m( contain subtropical vegetation that has characteristics of the south-east Asia-Malaysia and Indian floristic composition. The dominant tree is sal,and other species extant are Terminalia, Anogeissue, Adina cordiafolia sissoo,Acacia catechu etc.The forests in the western region are well preserved.It is estimated that there are nearly 1500 species of flowering plants in this belt.
The Mid-hills (1000-3000) have the greatest ecosystem as well as species diversities in Nepal.Largely due to the great variety of terrain and the occurrence of subtropical to temperate flora and fauna in this zone. Harboring nearly 32% of the forests in the country,the zone includes 52 types of ecosystems with an estimated number of flowering plant species over 4000.Major species found in the zone are Castanopsis Indica,Schima Wallichii, Chir Pine,Alnus neaplensis,Cedrela,Albiza etc in the lower belt,and Castanopsis tribuloides, Castanopsis hystrix,Lithocarpus pachyphylla,bluepine,several.Juglans etc in the upper belt.
The highlands (above 300m) include 38 major ecosystems covering one-third of the total forest cover of Nepal, representing birch, oak rhododendron ,juniper, fir, cedar, larch, and spruce forests. About 420 flowering plants species have been recovered above 5,000m on both sides of the Himalayan range in the Everest region. It is estimated that over 2,7oo species of flowering plants are found in the zone. Although relatively less diverse than the mid-hills and Lowlands, they are characterized by a large number of endemic species.
Based on the climatological,florisitic and ecological information,Nepal has been divided into three geographic regions:West (the karnali) the koshi river system further east of 86% 30’E longitude),and center (Gandaki River system indicator species like Aesculs indica and Cedrus deodara are predominatly found in the west,while castanopsis hystirx and Larix griffithiana are predominant in eastern and central Nepal.Eastern Nepal is richer in rhododendron species,for example the Mechi zone contains as many as 28 abundanspecies,and the Mahakali Zone only 5.The rhododendron arboreum grows up to 15m and grows abundantly in the Lower only 10-30cm at 4500-5500m,the world record for the vascular plants.
The central Botanical Garden (82 ha) is located at Godawari (1520m) in the south –east corner of the Kathmandu Valley.At the base of Phulchoki (2.790m),It is surrounded by natural evergreen forests of mainly Schima Wallichii and Castansopsis indica.Alnus nepalensis are concentrated along the water courses.Some common trees and shrubs of this garden are Choerospondias axillaris, Myrica esculenta ,Pyracantha crenulata, Rubus ellipticus, Mahania napaulesnsis, Zizphus incurve, stranvaesia nussia, prunus cerrasoides ,pyrus pashia etc.The orchid house alone contains about 95 varies including Dendrobium desniflorum,ceologyne cristata ,calanthe masuca and Pleione hookeriana ect.
The other Botanical gardens in the country (location, altitude, year of establishments ) are:
1.Maiphokahri Botanical garden,Illam,2200m (1992)
2. Dhanusha Botanical Garden,Dhanushadham,Dhanusha ,77m(1998)
3. Vrindaban Botanical Gareden,Hetauda,Makawanpur,500m( 1962)
4. Daman Botanical Garden ,Daman Makawanpur,2145m 91962)
5.Tistung Botanical Garden,Tipsung,Makawanpur,1700m (1962)
6.Dhakeri Botanical Garden,Banke,130m (1962)
7. Mulpani Botanical Garden,Kapurkot,salyan,2000m (1962)
8. Dhitachor Botanical Garden,Jumla,2500m(1990)
9.Godawari Botanical garden,Dhangadhi,Kailali 130m (1998)
10. Deoria Botanical Gareden,Dhangadhi,Kailali 100m.
Over 700 species of plants of Nepal have been identified at plants having medical value.Of them ,72 species are commercially important,and the five major species having the highest export quantity of their biomaterial are rittha or soap nut ( Sapindus Mukoross) ,timer or Nepali paper (Zanthoxylum armatum),Jhau or Lichen (parmelia spp),pawan (persia bombycina) and Chitra (Swertia Chirayita).A unique plants species that grows on a caterpillar is yarsa gumba.( Cordyceps sinensis) which is found in the way Shey Phoksundo area and similar high regions.The Amchi ( Tibetan traditional healer) and Aryuvedic traditional rely cures. Some important places where these ,Sagarmtha and Shey Phosundo besides others.
The community forests in the hills and plains are noteworthy and worth and a visit .Over 15,000 user groups are engaged in the planting and natural regeneration of trees and medical plants .Wildlife including birds and mammals like leopards have returned to these forests.In many places, tourism forest products .The activities besides harvesting of forest products. The activities in the community forests within the buffer zones of Chitwan are:elephnat safaris, natural walks etc.
Day 01: Kathmandu (1350m) to Pokhara (914m.)
Day 02: Pokhara to Tikhedhunga (1577m)
Day 03: Tirkhedhunga to Ghorepani (2855m.)
Day 04: Ghorepani to Punhill (2850m.) and then to Tadapani (2675m.)
Day 05: Tadapani (2675 – Baili Kharka (3450) 5 hours.
Day 06: Baili Kharka (3450) – Khopra Danda (3660) 5 hours
Day 07: Khopra Danda (3660) – Paudwar (1750) 3½ hour.
Day 08: Paudwar 1750) – Chistibang (2950) 6 hours.
Day 09: Chistibang (2950 – Baili Kharka (3450) 3 hours.
Day 10: Baili Kharka (3450) – Deurali (2980) 4 hours.
Day 11: Deurali to Ghandruk (1950m.)
Day 12: Ghandruk (1950m.) to Pothana (1990m.)
Day 13: Pothana to Dhampus Phedi (1113m.) to Pokhara
Day 14: Pokhara to Kathmandu
1) Hotel accommodation in Kathmandu two night and two night hotel in Pokhara.
2) Three meals a day (Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner) with hot beverage and snacks whilst on trekking.
3) Trek Permit & Trekkers’ Information Management System (TIMS) fees
4) An experienced fluent English speaking guide, licenced by Ministry of Tourism & Civil Aviation, Nepal.
5) Highly experienced trekking porter
6) Four times tea or coffee.
7) Staff food, accommodation, clothing, salary & insurance.
8) All necessary ground transportation.
9) Airport transfers.
10) Adventure Himalaya Treks’down jacket and sleeping bag
11) All governmental procedure
12) Welcome & Farewell dinner in Kathmandu at typical Nepali restaurant.
1) Meals at Kathmandu.
2) Personal expenses.
3) Bar and beverage bills.
4) Your Travel Insurance.
5) Rescue & Evacuation.
6) Tips for trekking staff and driver.